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Volume : 41 Issue : 2 Year : 2022
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pelviperineology. 2012; 31(4): 101-106 | DOI:

A simplified biomechanical perspective of the Integral Theory System

FLORIAN WAGENLEHNER1, BERNARD LIEDL2, PETER PETROS3
1Clinic of Urology, Pediatric Urology and Andrology, Justus-Liebig-University, Rudolf-Buchheim Str. 7, D-35385 Giessen, Germany, 2Abteilung für Urogenitale Chirurgie, Beckenbodenzentrum München, Germany, 3UNSW Academic Dept of Surgery, St Vincent's Hospital Clinical School, Sydney; Adjunct Professor UWA School of Engineering, Perth WA

The Integral Theory offers an entirely anatomical explanation of normal and abnormal pelvic floor function. It states that prolapse, some types of pelvic pain, bladder and anorectal symptoms are mainly caused by laxity in the vagina or its supporting ligaments, a result of altered collagen/elastin. The Integral System is a practical, anatomically-based system for diagnosis and minimally invasive treatment of POP and symptoms based on diagnosing and repairing lax suspensory ligaments/ perineal body. We have taken a different perspective in this paper, starting from the basic science of urine flow through an elastic tube and proceeding to how ligaments become lax, how lax ligaments weaken the muscle forces which open and close the organs, onto the genesis of symptoms and prolapse and finally, how they can be precisely repaired and tensioned.


Cite This Article

WAGENLEHNER F, LIEDL B, PETROS P. A simplified biomechanical perspective of the Integral Theory System. 2012; 31(4): 101-106

Corresponding Author: WAGENLEHNER F.